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Asthma

Asthma is a disorder that causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow, leading to wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Asthma is caused by inflammation in the airways. When an asthma attack occurs, the muscles surrounding the airways become tight and the lining of the air passages swells. This reduces the amount of air that can pass by.

In sensitive people, asthma symptoms can be triggered by breathing in allergy-causing substances (called allergens or triggers).

Common asthma triggers include:

  • Animals (pet hair or dander)
  • Dust
  • Changes in weather (most often cold weather)
  • Chemicals in the air or in food
  • Exercise
  • Mold
  • Pollen
  • Respiratory infections, such as the common cold
  • Strong emotions (stress)
  • Tobacco smoke

Aspirin and other no steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) provoke asthma in some patients. Many people with asthma have a personal or family history of allergies, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis) or eczema. Others have no history of allergies.

Symptoms

  • Cough with or without sputum (phlegm) production
  • Iintercostal retractions
  • Shortness of
  • Emergency symptoms
  • Bluish color to the lips and face
  • Decreased level of alertness, such as severe drowsiness or confusion, during an asthma attack
  • Extreme difficulty breathing
  • Rapid pulse
  • Severe anxiety due to shortness of breath
  • Sweating

Signs and tests

Physical examination by chest physician.

Tests may include:

  • Eosinophil count and IgE
  • Chest x-ray
  • Lung function tests
  • Peak flow measurements
  • Allergy test

Treatment

For more information and treatment in adult and children contact Dr Shubha Agrawal

Allergy Test

Atmosphere is charged with chemical pollutants, occupational dust, and allergens like pollen, bacteria, fungi etc. Environment awareness is getting worldwide attention and efforts are constantly being made to find out the all ways for its betterment.

All these allergens causes a variety of allergic disorders.

Allergic Rhinitis
Allergic cold
Atopic dermatitis
Allergic AsthmaAtopic dermatitis
Allergic broncho pulmonary aspergillosis
Contact dermatitis
Urticaria

Cause of Allergy:

  • Virus
  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Dyes and chemicals
  • Pollen
  • Metals
  • House dust
  • Perfumes and fragrances
  • Mite
  • Occupatinal dust
  • Food
  • Cat,Dog, Insect stings
  • Drugs

Symptoms of Allergy:

  • Itching of skin eyes and nose
  • Running nose
  • Cold
  • Redness of skin
  • Breathlessness and wheezing
  • Nausea and wheezing
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Decreased urine output
  • Papules and Vesicles all over skin
  • Swelling over body

Diagnosis of Allergy:

We at Agrawal Diagnostic Center are doing Allergy test. It will help in diagnosing the cause of allergy which can be either due to pollens, Fungi, Animals dander, cotton, juicy and non juicy foods. This test will help in prevention of disease and reduces exacerbation of disease.

Different way of Diagnosis:

Blood allergy test
Skin prick test
Drug allergy test

Preparation for Allergy test:

No antihistaminic or steroid 1 day before the test.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). You can get TB by breathing in air droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person. This is called primary TB. Tuberculosis can involve different sites such as :-

  • Pulmonary (lungs)
  • Extra Pulmonary
  • Lymph nodes
  • Brain
  • Bones
  • Heart
  • Pleura
  • Skin
  • Abdomen
  • Urinary system

The following people are at higher risk for active TB:

  • Elderly
  • Infants
  • People with weakened immune systems, for example due to AIDS, chemotherapy, diabetes, or certain medications

Your risk of contracting TB increases if you:

  • Are in frequent contact with people who have TB
  • Have poor nutrition
  • Live in crowded or unsanitary living conditions

Symptoms

The primary stage of TB usually doesn't cause symptoms. When symptoms of pulmonary TB occur, they may include:

  • Cough (usually cough up mucus)
  • Coughing up blood
  • Excessive sweating, especially at night
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Unintentional weight loss

Other symptoms that may occur with this disease:

  • Breathing difficulty
  • Chest pain
  • Wheezing

Tests may include:

  • Biopsy of the affected tissue, FNAC
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Chest CT scan
  • Chest x-ray
  • Interferon-gamma blood test such as the QFT-Gold test to test for TB infection
  • Sputum examination and cultures
  • Thoracentesis
  • Tuberculin skin test
  • Immunological tests for TB

Different Types of resistant tuberculosis is now prevalent

  • MDR-TB
  • XDR-TB
  • TDR-TB

For treatment and management contact Dr'Shubha Agrawal